TAMU Cotton Engineering & Management

  • PM10 Emission Factor for Free Stall Dairies – Dr. Parnell and Barry Goodrich
This study is funded under contract to UC Davis. Our initial findings were that the PM10 emission factor for free-stall dairies should be approximately 5 lbs per 1000hd per day. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) had been using a much larger number (135 lbs/1000hd/d). We determined that the 135 lbs/1000hd/d emission factor was derived from the old AP-42 TSP emission factor that was in error.  In spite of the fact that our preliminary emission factor is not final, the CARB is using an emission factor between 5 and 10 lbs/1000hd/d.
  • Ammonia and PM10 Emission Factors for Broiler Operations – Dr. Lacey and Jarah Redwine
Ms. Redwine and Dr. Lacey reported ammonia and PM10 emission factors that were dramatically different than those reported by EPA. One of the unique findings was that the EPA ammonia emission factor was an order of magnitude greater that was possible based upon the nitrogen consumed by the birds. The PM10 emission factor was greatly affected by the particle size distribution (PSD) of the dust emitted by the ventilation system. The MMD of the dust was approximately 25 micrometers AED which resulted in a small fraction of PM10.
  • Protocol for Determining Emission Factors of PM10 and Ammonia from Animal Feeding Operations with the Animals Confined to Ventilated Housing - Dr. Lacey and Jarah Redwine
Dr.Lacey and Redwine developed a new methodology for determining emission factors from enclosed livestock buildings. They measured the concentration in the house and determined the emission rate based upon accurate measurements of ventilation rate and measured concentrations. Data collection followed a statistical experimental plan and the resulting emission rates included an estimate of error. They also included a propagation of errors analysis for the process which highlighted the key factors for gravimetric analysis of particulate matter. The resulting emission factor should be more accurate because of the new protocol.
  • Documentation of Errors associated with PM10 and PM2.5 Sampling using Federal Reference Method (EPA approved and recommended) Samplers – Dr. Parnell and Mike Buser
Mr. Buser performed a relatively simple analysis of the effects of the required performance standard for an EPA approved Federal Reference Method (FRM) Sampler and the larger PM associated with PM emissions from agricultural operations. PM from agricultural operations typically has a lognormal distribution with mass median diameters (MMD) 15 to 25 microns AED and geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.0. In effect, he demonstrated that because of the penetration of larger particles to the filter of a PM10 FRM sampler, that the use of FRM EPA samplers would result in errors that could exceed a factor of 3. The result would be inappropriate regulation of agricultural operations. EPA is interested in finding a way to correct for this error.
  • A New Dispersion Modeling Procedure (FTAM) for Predicting Downwind Concentrations of PM10 from Low-Level Point Sources (LLPS) [LLPS include Cotton Gins, Grain Elevators, Feed Mills etc.] – Dr Shaw, Dr. Brad Fritz, Linda Williams, Greg Zwicke, and John Wanjura
The Industrial Source Complex Short Term, version 3 (ISCST3) model is the EPA recommended dispersion model for predicting downwind concentrations from sources. The problems we have encountered using ISCST3 is that it over-estimates downwind concentrations. We have conducted an in-depth analysis and have learned that a correction can be made in the science that will more appropriately account for wind direction changes in the ISCST3 model. The resulting downwind estimates of the 24-hour concentrations are reduced by a factor of 2.5. If we can get EPA approval to use this approach, the resulting impact upon SAPRA permitting of cotton gins, grain elevators and feed mills will be significant.
  • A New Dispersion Modeling Procedure for Predicting Downwind Concentrations of PM10 from Ground-Level Area Sources (GLAS) – Drs. Parnell, Shaw, and Mike Meister
The use of Gaussian modeling to predict concentrations from ground-level area sources is problematic. The concentration versus height above the ground is normally (Gaussian) distributed in the vertical plane. For GLAS, the assumption is that the below ground portion of the normal distribution is reflected above ground yielding what Meister called a “double-normal “distribution. Mr. Meister reported a dramatic improvement in downwind concentration estimates if the normal distribution in the vertical plane were replaced with a triangular distribution.
  • Aerial Pollutant Emissions from Confined Animal Buildings – Dr. John Sweeten, Dr. Jacek Koziel, Dr. Bok-Haeng Baek
The project goal is to determine baseline emission rates for swine finish barns in Texas and evaluate the differences in emissions due to season of year, time of day, growth cycle of the animals, and building management. Texas A&M University has been continuously measuring emissions of NH3, H2S, CO2, PM-10, and odor from mechanically-ventilated, confined swine finishing houses since November 2002. The swine finishing houses are located nearly 100 miles from Texas A&M Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Amarillo, Information from this research will provide producers, technical assistance providers, regulators, and compilers of emission inventories with accurate baseline information.
  • Improving Measurements of Dust and Ammonia Emissions from Confined Animal Buildings – Dr. Jacek Koziel and Dr. John Sweeten.
Dust and ammonia emissions have risen sharply in importance as issues confronting both the swine and poultry industries. The first objective of this project is to supplement the larger APECAB project by periodically measuring TSP (total suspended particulates) to compliment the continuous measurement of PM10 (dust particles under 10 mm in diameter). This will be accomplished using (1) gravimetrical integration of mean mass concentration of TSP over regular time periods, and (2) continuous monitoring of TSP using the TEOM to show instantaneous dynamic behavior of TSP emissions. The second objective is to measure nitrogen inputs to the facilities for which ammonia (gas) losses are being accurately monitored. Monthly feed, manure, and water samples will be taken along with an estimation of the animal feed used and manure produced.Samples will be sent to a local testing laboratory and analyzed for nitrogen (total Kjeldahl N, and ammoniacal N). This information will be used for a nitrogen mass balance in the buildings as a method of estimating the potential of the system to produce ammonia. The ammonia emission from the building will be expressed as a percentage of input.
  • PM10 Emissions from Almond Harvesting Operations– Sergio Capareda and Calvin B. Parnell Jr.

The goal of this project is to provide accurate PM10 emission factor for almond harvesting operations. The work evaluates whether current measurement methods are sensitive enough to provide quantitative results from alternate almond harvesting management practices. This information will be necessary to determine the effectiveness of the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District’s PM10 control regulations.

  • Exhaust Emissions from Engines Fueled by Cottonseed oil Biodiesel– Sergio Capareda

Engine dynamometer tests were made using various mixtures of cottonseed oil biodiesel. The engine performance curves and complete exhaust emissions (NOx, Sox, PM and VOC) were measured to generate new information on engine emissions using blends of biofuels.

  • A Science-Based Emission Factor for John Deere 6-Row Cotton Pickers– Calvin B. Parnell Jr.,Bryan W. Shaw and Sergio Capareda

The objective of this study is to develop a science based emission factor for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 emissions from picker type cotton harvesting machines.